A bone marrow transplantation is a medical procedure performed to replace bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. In addition, bone marrow is spongy tissue in several bones in the body, including hip and thigh bones. Bone marrow contains immature cells called stem cells.
If the bone marrow is damaged or destroyed by disease, infection or chemotherapy, weak or damaged cells are replaced by healthy cells by performing a transplant, i.e. healthy bone marrow replaces unhealthy. This is a healing process in which blood stem cells travel to the bone marrow, which also, in turn, produces new blood cells and promotes the growth of new bone marrow.
Many people with blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, sickle cell anemia and other life-threatening illnesses rely on bone marrow or cord blood transplantation to survive.
Healthy bone marrow and blood cells are needed to live. When the disease affects bone marrow so that it can no longer function effectively, marrow or cord blood transplantation may be the best treatment option; in some patients, this is the only possible remedy.
It also looks like a sponge. There is fatty tissue in the bone that makes the following parts of the blood:
Red blood cells (RBCs) carry oxygen and nutrients throughout the body
White blood cells (WBC) that fight infection
Thrombocytes responsible for blood clot formation
They help generate enough leukocytes, red blood cells or platelets to prevent infections, bleeding disorders or anemia.
Types of bone marrow transplantation
They are categorized in two ways:
- Autologous BMT
- Allogeneic BMT
Seven steps of bone marrow transplantation
Step 1: – Planning Forward
You will have to manage your problems and plans at the same time so you can adequately monitor your recovery.
Step 2: – Preparation
The most important element of development is that you have to prepare the donor for the transplant, whether you are a donor or someone else.
Step 3: – Conditioning
When you and your donor are ready for a transplant, your doctor will begin your treatment regimen. That means you get chemotherapy, total body radiation, cancer and unhealthy bone marrow.
Step 4: – Transplantation
Your transplant will also not take place until your conditioning is completed.
Step 5: – Waiting for packaging
Engraftment is also the process by which the stem cells received from the donor begin to grow and develop. This means that the bone marrow and the immune system are recovering. You will be carefully monitored and treated for any side effects or complications that occur. Moreover, your transplant team and the attending person will support you emotionally.
Step 6: – Restore granulation
After allogeneic transplantation, the initial recovery time is only about three months, and for autologous it is just one month. You are under strict observation, and blood tests are scheduled for you on a regular basis.
Step 7: – Long-term recovery
After allogeneic transplantation, there is a more extended recovery period when you can meet hospital staff for a long-term follow-up program. You will get lifelong resources for your business. They sit and work together with your team to evaluate your release. If it was also an autologous transplant, long-term problems were not.
However, bone marrow affects many body systems, the problem can lead to a wide range of diseases, including cancers that affect the blood.
Many diseases are a threat to bone marrow transplantation. It prevents the bone marrow from converting stem cells into essential cells.
Leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, and other lymphoma cancers are known to damage the production potential of the bone marrow and destroy stem cells.